Note: This is just a reposting of a previous post. It was the fastest way I could think to move it to a new location.
Network Recon Summary
Nmap is a fundamental tool that most people with use to conduct network reconnaissance against targets. In addition to the networking capabilities, Nmap has a large library of scripts for attacks, enumeration, password attacks and more.
Breaking down the default scan (no options)
$ nmap 192.168.1.1
Note: We will break down the nmap scan one option at a time. After describing the option we will add it to the command and move on. This process is towards the endeavor that you better understand your tools.
TCP SYN scan
An nmap scan with no options defaults to a TCP SYN scan aka half-open scan, the -sS option (nmap -sS <ip> ). The scan is said to be a stealthier scan as a completed three-way handshake never occurs ( https://www.techopedia.com/definition/10339/three-way-handshake ). This is what the command would look like:
$ nmap -sS 192.168.1.1
Additional Default Options
In addition, according to the man page, “If no host discovery options are given, Nmap sends an ICMP echo request, a TCP SYN packet to port 443, a TCP ACK packet to port 80, and an ICMP timestamp request… These defaults are equivalent to the -PE -PS443 -PA80 -PP options.” The interpreted command without options thus far would look like:
$ nmap -sS -PE -PS 443 -PA 80 -PP 192.168.1.1
Top 1,000 Ports
As far as port scanning goes nmap will default to the top 1,000 ports. Making the command now as follows:
$ nmap -sS -PE -PS 443 -PA 80 -PP --top-ports 1000 192.168.1.1
Networking can be summed up with two types of traffic TCP (stateful) and UDP (stateless). To read about the differences check out the following link http://www.diffen.com/difference/TCP_vs_UDP . One thing to remember when running UDP scans, they take much longer to run than TCP scans. What this means is that we don’t want to scan all UDP ports. Feel free to scan all 65,535 TCP ports, in CTF's especially admins like to run services on non-standard ports. Both can be scanned at the same time using the following syntax where “T:” is for TCP ports and “U:” is for UDP ports:
$ nmap -p T:1-65535,U:161,162 192.168.1.1
Two additional options that are needed for good initial reconnaissance is Service, Service Version, and Operating System. These bits of information will guide what other attacks and recon methods you choose to use. One thing to note is that OS will not always be accurate but the information is great if you can get it.
$ nmap -sV -O 192.168.1.1
Starter SyntaxBelow is a good start for your Nmap network scan command:
Nmap -O -sV -p T:1-65535,U:161,162 192.168.1.1
Hopefully, this has helped you better understand Nmap and how powerful the tool is. Please visit https://nmap.org to learn more and really dig into the great documentation that Fyodor Vaskovich and his team has put together. After you have conquered the basics don’t forget to check out the NSE scripts.